world landmarks

The Colosseum, Colosseum, Colosseum, or the so-called Flavium Amphitheater (Latin: Ampatrum Flavium; Italian: Anfiteatro Flavio or Colosseo), is a gigantic Roman amphitheater located in the center of Rome, built to the east of the Roman Forum, and its construction dates back to the era of the Roman Empire in the century The first was between 70 and 72 AD under Emperor Flavio Vespasian.

It was completed mainly in the year 80 during the reign of Titus, but some modifications were added to it during the reign of Domitian. Built of concrete and stone, the largest amphitheater in the world is the largest work ever built by the Roman Empire, and is considered one of the greatest works of Roman architecture and engineering. An image of the Colosseum is printed on the Italian five-cent coin.

The Colosseum was named the Flavian Amphitheater in honor of the dynasty of the Flavian emperors who established this amphitheater. Later it was called the Colosseum in relation to the huge statue of Nero that was located next to it, and named in Latin “Colossus” (Latin: Colossus) after the Colossus of Rhodes.

This name moved from Latin to various European languages ​​during the Middle Ages, from which the Arabic language arrived during the period of introduction and transfer of Western literature and books in the late nineteenth century and during the period of the British and French occupations and mandates on the various Arab countries.

Used for gladiatorial combat and mass competitions such as mock naval battles, animal hunts, executions, reenactments of famous battles and dramas based on classical mythology, the arena had a capacity of 50,000 to 80,000 people in the eight-row stands.

Sitting in the foreground near the sandy plaza was the emperor and the senators, while at the top sat the lower classes of society. Its opening ceremonies lasted 100 days, in which all classes of the Roman people participated in that event, and during that celebration dozens of gladiators and beasts who sacrificed their lives for the pleasure and entertainment of the people died, and the sailors helped them in setting up tents that protected the spectators from the strong sunlight.

The building ceased to be used for mass performances in the early Middle Ages. Subsequently, it was reused as a sanctuary, factory, religious establishment headquarters, fortress, and quarry. Abundant building materials were excavated to build other buildings from under its ruins, but it was later turned into a Christian shrine, honoring the captives killed during the early years of Christianity. This measure helped protect the building from looting and ensure its maintenance.

The Colosseum stands as a monument to the genius of Roman engineering, as well as a powerful tool for crowd control, with a dazzling display that was in keeping with Rome’s world domination.

Although the structure was badly damaged by earthquakes, the Colosseum has always been seen as a symbol of the Roman Empire and an example of Roman architecture.

The Colosseum is one of the most popular tourist attractions in modern Rome, and is still closely associated with the Catholic Church, with the Pope presiding over the Way of the Cross on Good Friday. It is the historical center of Rome and the Holy See of extraterritorial regions in Italy.

Its amphitheater was designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1980. On July 7, 2007, the amphitheater was also inscribed among the New Seven Wonders of the World, following a competition organized by the NOWC New World Foundation.

The Colosseum has revealed its most hidden treasures after a sweeping clean-up of an enclosed area decades ago, as cleaners uncovered lively murals in vibrant colors dating back nearly 2,000 years.

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