Iraq between civilizations past and present

Arab landmarks

Iraq has been a major center of civilization since ancient times, having been a region of many empires and civilizations throughout history. The country now called Iraq has been a cradle of civilization since 4800 BC, when the Ubaid people developed an advanced irrigation system and created some of the earliest cities known to man, such as Eridu and Uruk. Iraq was also home to the Akkadian, Sumerian, Assyrian, Babylonian, and later Islamic empires. The name “Iraq” derives from Arabic, meaning “the fertile.” The country has a long, rich history and has been the center of many ancient civilizations.

The ancient Sumerian civilization is thought to have developed in Iraq as early as 4000 BC, and the Akkadians, who established the first unified government over the region, are believed to have arrived in the region around 2500 BC. During this period, the city of Babylon was founded, which later became one of the most powerful cities in the world and the center of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. The Babylonian Empire was the most powerful state in Mesopotamia from 1894-1595 BC, and was an important center of thought and learning during that period.

Iraq was also the site of the first recorded code of law, as well as the first recorded use of writing. The region also made significant contributions to mathematics, astronomy, and astrology, as well as literature and the arts. During the Islamic period, Baghdad became an important center of Islamic learning and was home to the influential philosophical school of thought known as the Mu’tazilites, who were particularly concerned with issues related to morality, free will, and the nature of God.

Iraq was under Ottoman rule from 1534-1918 and then became a mandated territory of Britain, until gaining independence in 1932. In 1958, the monarchy was overthrown and Iraq became a republic. The period of Saddam Hussein’s rule of Iraq (1979-2003) was marked by oppression and violence. He used military force to oppress the Kurdish minority and launched an invasion of Kuwait, leading to an international coalition to remove him from power in 1991. The period following his removal from power has seen Iraq struggle to build a stable government, with significant sectarian violence and ongoing military conflict due to the presence of international forces in the country.

In conclusion, Iraq is a country with a rich and long history of civilizations, from the Sumerian to the Babylonian and Islamic empires. It has also been the site of significant advances in mathematics, astronomy, and literature, as well as the first recorded use of writing and code of law. In more recent times, Iraq has struggled to build a stable government, with sectarian

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